These are the “spore plants” or “vascular cryptogams.”  As shown in the diagram above, this is an artificial (non monophyletic) group rather than a natural group (monophyletic) because it includes two sets of taxa that together do not form a monophyletic group.  The Lycophytes represent the earliest surviving vascular plants (longest fossil history) and includes just three families.  The monilophytes includes ferns and close relatives that have historically been classified in their own division (e.g., Equisetophyta and Psilophyta) but are now recognized as being much closer to the true ferns than previously thought.  The monilophyte families with photo galleries here include more than those covered in class.  The spermatophyte group in the diagram above refers to the seed plants, including both gymnosperms and angiosperms.


Ferns & Fern Allies

Family Galleries

Lycophytes  [ Wikipedia ]

    • Lycopodiaceae

    • Selaginellaceae

    • Isoetaceae

Monilophytes  [ Wikipedia ]

    • Phylogenetic Tree

    • Ophioglossaceae

    • Psilotaceae

    • Equisetaceae

    • Osmundaceae

    • Marattiaceae

  1. Polypodiaceae

  2. Pteridaceae

    • Marsileaceae

    • Salviniaceae